After more than forty years under Qadhafi’s brutal regime, Libya had reason to hope for better times. Yet the fall of the dictator in 2011 unleashed civil war, ushered in the Islamic State, and led to an overwhelming migration crisis. In this masterful synthesis of reporting, history, and the deep knowledge of an experienced Arabic-speaking Middle East scholar, Wehrey explains what happened. He shows in detail where the West went wrong and profiles ordinary people whose lives were overturned, as well as drawing on interviews with the activists, revolutionariesturned- militia bosses, and jihadi recruits who have overturned them. He traveled extensively throughout the country, and his account is studded with unforgettable details such as descriptions of the ISIS stronghold in Sirte, Qadhafi’s hometown.